Státnice z anglické filologie - negace (morfologie a syntax)

Státnice z anglické filologie – negace (morfologie a syntax)

Zpracovaná otázka z anglické filologie na Univerzitě Palackého v Olomouci s následujícím zadáním:

Morphology and syntax of negation in English and Czech, Scope of negation, Lexical, partial and sentential negation, Single/ multiple negation, Polarity items, Negative adverbs)

CZ: negative unit = ne

  • EN: negative unit = no + not
  • CZ + EN negative quantifiers: nobody, nowhere, no-

CZ – agreement in negation

  • negation is not only with verb
  • ne – can stay with lexical verb

EN – one negation

  • Not can only stay with modal/auxiliary

Negation

1. lexical negation

  • negation is with word not with sentence,
  • -free, -less + un-, dis-

2. sentence negation

  • negating verbal predicate

3. partial

  • before other members than a verb
  • in CZ -> always partial negation
  • in EN a) partial e.g. I cook but not the every day b) negate the whole sentence e.g. Not a single star could be seen

 

Polarity items

In English there are 2 ways how to express negations
1. positive verb + negative quantifier
2. negative verb + positive quantifier

  • tend to placed as close to the beginning of a sentence as possible (-> Nobody is there; not There wasn’t anybody)
  • polarity items beginning with no- are more formal

double negation
1. grammatical + lexical – e.g. if it isn’t unreasonable
2. 2 grammatical negations but each for different predictions – e.g. He doesn’t like doing nothing
3. 2 grammatical negations for 1 predication – e.g. Nobody has never got into trouble

 

Negative adverbs

  • Hardly, barely, seldom, only
  • Formally they are positive but have negative meaning
  • How do we know the meaning is negative? Thanks to tag questions and inversion

Scope of negation

  • Over the whole clause
  • Some words can stop the scope of negation,  e.g. just -> I don’t talk to just nobody
Author: Je to boj

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