Anglistika státnice - morfologie a syntax (Verbs - manifestation of tense and aspect in English and Czech)

Anglistika státnice – morfologie a syntax (Verbs – manifestation of tense and aspect in English and Czech)

Verbs – manifestation of tense and aspect in English and Czech (tense versus time, forms and function of simple tenses, regular and irregular verbs, progressive and perfect forms, restrictions in progressive forms with particular semantic classes, verbs of perception)


EN: tense, aspect, mood, voice
CZ: tense, aspect, mood, voice + gender, conjugation
-Manifested in flexion + auxiliary

Time = universal non-linguistic concept divided into past, present, future
Tense = the correspondence between form of the verb and our concept of time
a) absolute -> past, present, future
b) relative -> a) happening at the same time – saying goodbye he left b) preceding – having finished

Simple tenses:
a) simple present – distinction between the 3rd person singular
b) simple past – no distinction

ad a)
1) unrestricted use – verbs expressing state
 – universal statements/truths
2) instantaneous use – verbs expressing events
–  sport commentaries, instructions, headlines, ceremonials
3) habitual use
4) referring to past
–  historical present
5) referring to future (timetable events – bus leaves this station at 8:30)

ad b)
1) action completed at a particular moment
2) habitual action, a series of actions
3) polite inquires – e.g. I wondered if you could help me with
4) Hypothetical meaning – If you loved me, you would do it
5) Events taking place in future – in sci-fi

a) progressive aspect
– progressive aspect typically with action verbs only -> not with state verbs:
i. verbs of inner perception – feel, hear, smell, see
ii. verbs of inner cognition – believe, forget, hope
iii. state verbs of being and having
iv. verbs of bodily sensation
v. ..
+ not with modals + not with copula verbs
1. continuation of action
2. repetition of action
3. change of state
4. near future

verbs of inner perception – when the listener is focusing on action these verbs become verbs of general perception -> e.g. the soup tastes great X he is tasting the soup

b) perfect aspect
1. state-up-to present
2. indefinite past
3. habit in a period leading up to present
4. resultative past

Author: Je to boj

Napsat komentář

Vaše e-mailová adresa nebude zveřejněna. Vyžadované informace jsou označeny *

Tato stránka používá Akismet k omezení spamu. Podívejte se, jak vaše data z komentářů zpracováváme..