Lexikologie

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Zpracované otázky z anglické filologie část lexikologie na Univerzitě Palackého v Olomouci.

 

Státnice z anglické filologie - lexikologie (lexicology)

Leikologie (Lexicology)

Sources of words in English (word-formation: types of word-formative processes and their manifestation in English and in Czech, borrowing into English over time)

Lexikologie 

  • The rules by which are words constructed help us to recognize heir grammatical class
  • Word formation has limited productivity (after we apply the rules not all words acceptable)
  • The rules themselves undergo changes as well

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Anglická lexikologie - zpracovaná otázka

Anglická lexikologie – zpracovaná otázka

Changes of lexical meaning (widening, narrowing, deterioriation/pejoration, amelioration/elevation, euphemism; literal and figurative meaning, transfer of meaning, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, folk etymology, faux amis)

Vocabulary

  • Grows by absorbing new words or by giving new additional meaning to the existing ones; the old meaning or the old word is sometimes replaced by the new one, but very often they coexist and so the word can become polysemic

Processes
1. widening

  • shift from animal to the adult, e.g. bird, pig used to refer only to offspring X now it?s a general term
  • shift from particular specie to the animal in general, e.g. dog was originally a special breed (the general term used to be a hound)
  • shift from a smaller object to the larger one – box was originally only a small container
  • shift from lexical to grammatical meaning, e.g. ‚have‘ used to have only lexical meaning X now it has also grammatical (perfect tenses)
  • other shifts: ‚ready‘ used tom mean only ‚ready for a ride‘

2. narrowing

  • a general term stopped being a general term and refers to a race or breed only
  • deer – originally: all animals X now: vysoká
  • fowl – or: all birds X now: only water fowl
  • hound – or: all dogs X now: dogs for hunting

3. deterioration

  •  terms which developed in a negative way (usually ethnic terms)
  • cunning – originally: leading X now: cunning as a fox (lstivý)
  • villain – or: a man of a low social class X now: antihero (padouch)
  • propaganda or: spreading news X now zkreslené informace

4. amelioration

  • terms which developed in a positive way
  • duke – used to meant ‚leader‘
  • luxury – used to meant ‚extravagance‘
  • nice – used to meant ‚ignorant‘

5. transfer

  • a degree of similarity between two denotations
  • a) metaphor – a transfer of meaning on the basis of exterior feature, the similarity may involve:
  • I. shape – mouth (mouth of a person + of the river)
  • II. colour – chocolate
  • III. function – hand
  • IV. mount – drop

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Lexikologie - anglická filologie

Lexikologie – anglická filologie

Vocabulary as a system (centre, periphery, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations in the lexicon; collocations, idioms, clichés; polysemy, homonymy (homograph, homophone); synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, hyperonymy; lexical subsystems, semantic fields). Types of dictionaries.

Vocabulary

  • Grows by absorbing new words or by giving new additional meaning to the existing ones; the old meaning or the old word is sometimes replaced by the new one, but very often they coexist


Centre

  • Words with very high frequency and stability
  • Majority are nouns

Periphery

  • Words limited in frequency
  • 1. archaism – extra linguistic reality has changed ? highway man X robber; they are sometimes surviving in phrases, e.g. Merry Christmas X gay, cheerful
  • 2. dated voc – schoolmaster replaced by teacher
  • 3. emotional words – top hole
  • 4. neologism – every 10 years a new generation of words enter the vocabulary, e.g. in 1980s in was the word yuppie
  • 5. nonce words – words created by a writer, e.g. whiskey, pábitelé

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Lexikologie - anglická filologie

Lexikologie – anglická filologie

Lexical meaning and its analysis (word, word form, lexeme, lexical unit; onomasiology, semasiology; concept, denotation, connotation, reference, components of meaning / seme, sememe; ambiguity vs vagueness; word as a sign, arbitrariness, iconicity, motivation, onomatopoeia, sound symbolism)

 

Lexical meaning
Extra linguistic reality

  •  its main feature and characteristic is vagueness X ambiguity = e.g. red can in English mean red colour (the opposite of blue), the colour of Soviet flag, the colour of hair, to contrast it with Czech: červená, rudá, zrzavé -> red is polysemy

Concept

  • human perceiving of extra linguistic reality, changes with the development of knowledge

Motivation

  • Sort of iconicity 

a) constructional iconicity  majority of words have constructional iconicity , e.g. noun’s plural

b) Irregularity – e.g. man->men