Anglistika

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Anglistika – zpracované otázky k bakalářské státní zkoušce na anglické filologii na UPOL.

 

Anglistika státnice - morfologie a syntax (Parts of Speech - criteria for their classification)

Anglistika státnice – morfologie a syntax (Parts of Speech – criteria for their classification)

Parts of Speech – criteria for their classification (similarities and differences between English and Czech, syntactic, morphological, semantic, phonological; grammatical categories, e.g. number, countability, definiteness; open/autosemantic and closed/synsemantic word classes; syntactic functions of various parts of speech)

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Státnice z anglická filologie - morfologie a syntax (basic units of linguistic analysis in morphology and syntax)

Státnice z anglická filologie – morfologie a syntax (basic units of linguistic analysis in morphology and syntax)

Basic units of linguistic analysis in morphology and syntax (morpheme, free, bound; lexical, functional/grammatical, inflectional, derivational), morph, allomorph, morphophonology, syntactic phrase, root, stem)

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Anglistika státnice - morfologie a syntax (number and countability)

Anglistika státnice – morfologie a syntax (number and countability)

Nouns – number and countability: the semantico – grammatical nature of number and countability and the degree of grammaticalization in English and Czech (productive and less productive types of plural formation, singularia tantum, pluralia tantum, plurals in compound nouns, abstract and concrete nouns, nouns uncountable in particular meanings, singularization, e.g. a cake of soap, a bar of chocolate)

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Státnice z anglické filologie - lexikologie (lexicology)

Leikologie (Lexicology)

Sources of words in English (word-formation: types of word-formative processes and their manifestation in English and in Czech, borrowing into English over time)

Lexikologie 

  • The rules by which are words constructed help us to recognize heir grammatical class
  • Word formation has limited productivity (after we apply the rules not all words acceptable)
  • The rules themselves undergo changes as well

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Anglická lexikologie - zpracovaná otázka

Anglická lexikologie – zpracovaná otázka

Changes of lexical meaning (widening, narrowing, deterioriation/pejoration, amelioration/elevation, euphemism; literal and figurative meaning, transfer of meaning, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, folk etymology, faux amis)

Vocabulary

  • Grows by absorbing new words or by giving new additional meaning to the existing ones; the old meaning or the old word is sometimes replaced by the new one, but very often they coexist and so the word can become polysemic

Processes
1. widening

  • shift from animal to the adult, e.g. bird, pig used to refer only to offspring X now it?s a general term
  • shift from particular specie to the animal in general, e.g. dog was originally a special breed (the general term used to be a hound)
  • shift from a smaller object to the larger one – box was originally only a small container
  • shift from lexical to grammatical meaning, e.g. ‚have‘ used to have only lexical meaning X now it has also grammatical (perfect tenses)
  • other shifts: ‚ready‘ used tom mean only ‚ready for a ride‘

2. narrowing

  • a general term stopped being a general term and refers to a race or breed only
  • deer – originally: all animals X now: vysoká
  • fowl – or: all birds X now: only water fowl
  • hound – or: all dogs X now: dogs for hunting

3. deterioration

  •  terms which developed in a negative way (usually ethnic terms)
  • cunning – originally: leading X now: cunning as a fox (lstivý)
  • villain – or: a man of a low social class X now: antihero (padouch)
  • propaganda or: spreading news X now zkreslené informace

4. amelioration

  • terms which developed in a positive way
  • duke – used to meant ‚leader‘
  • luxury – used to meant ‚extravagance‘
  • nice – used to meant ‚ignorant‘

5. transfer

  • a degree of similarity between two denotations
  • a) metaphor – a transfer of meaning on the basis of exterior feature, the similarity may involve:
  • I. shape – mouth (mouth of a person + of the river)
  • II. colour – chocolate
  • III. function – hand
  • IV. mount – drop

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