Státní zkouška z anglické filologie - morfologie a syntax

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Státní zkouška z anglické filologie – morfologie a syntax

Adjectives and adverbs: formal, semantic and functional properties (typical suffixes; comparison, gradable and non-gradable; inflectional and periphrastic; suppletive forms, adjectives and adverbs identical in forms, syntactic roles of adverbials (adjuncts, disjuncts, subjuncts, conjuncts)

Adjectives
EN: gradation X CZ: declination
 – semantic role: it expresses feature, quality or relationship
1. derivational adj. – typical suffixes: ous, able, ive, ish?
2. non-derivational adj. – e.g. proud, long
– syntactic role:
1. attribute position – a spacious hall
2. adjectival predicate – this hall is spacious
3. subject complement – he died young
4. object complement – I consider it important

pre-modification of adjectives
a) grading adverbs – e.g. very important
b) measure phrase – a five-year-old son

post-modification
a) adjective + prepositional phrase – e.g. a man proud of his son
b) adjective + that clause – e.g. I?m sure that?
c) adj + to infinitive – e.g. He was hard to wait

gradation
a) positive
b) comparative
c) superlative
– we can’t grade words which already express the highest degree of property or absolute feature – e.g. blind, dead, deaf
– 2 kinds:
a) inflectional – using suffixes -er + -est
b) periphrastic/analytical – more + most

Adverbs
a) sentential adverbs – e.g. naturally – precedes verb or at the very end
b) temporary – e.g. often – all adverbs of frequency
c) verbal /manner – e.g. quickly – must be close to verb
d) grading – e.g. very – premodifiers

syntactically can be:
1. complements – are internal to the verb phrase
2. adjuncts – external with respect to verb + complement, we can ask WH-questions
3. disjuncts – adding an info that is not essential, expressing the speakers attitude towards – e.g. fortunately
4. conjuncts – adds info to the sentence that is not considered to be part of the context, links segments together, e.g. however

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