Státnice z anglické filologie - negace (morfologie a syntax)

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Státnice z anglické filologie – negace (morfologie a syntax)

Negation (Morphology and syntax of negation in English and Czech, Scope of negation, Lexical, partial and sentential negation, Single/ multiple negation, Polarity items, Negative adverbs)

CZ: negative unit = ne

  • EN: negative unit = no + not
  • CZ + EN negative quantifiers: nobody, nowhere, no-

CZ – agreement in negation

  • negation is not only with verb
  • ne – can stay with lexical verb

EN – One negation

  • Not can only stay with modal/auxiliary

Negation
1. lexical negation

  • negation is with word not with sentence,
  • -free, -less + un-, dis-

2. sentence negation

  • negating verbal predicate

3. partial

  • before other members than a verb
  • in CZ -> always partial negation
  • in EN a) partial e.g. I cook but not the every day b) negate the whole sentence e.g. Not a single star could be seen

polarity items – in EN 2 ways how to express negations
1. positive verb + negative quantifier
2. negative verb + positive quantifier

  • tend to placed as close to the beginning of a sentence as possible (-> Nobody is there; not There wasn?t anybody)
  • polarity items beginning with no- are more formal

double negation
1. grammatical + lexical – e.g. if it isn?t unreasonable
2. 2 grammatical negations but each for different predictions – e.g. He doesn?t like doing nothing
3. 2 grammatical negations for 1 predication – e.g. Nobody has never got into trouble

Negative adverbs – Hardly, barely, seldom, only

  • Formally are positive X negative meaning
  • How we know the meaning is negative -> tag questions, inversion

Scope of negation? Over the whole clause

  • Some words can stop the scope of negation ? e.g. just -> I don?t talk to just nobody
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